Torah and jad

About the Pentateuch

Moses holding stone tablets with the Ten Commandments.

Moses holding stone tablets with the Ten Commandments.

The name Pentateuch is from the Greek word penta, meaning “five,” and teuchos, “a tool” or “implement”; a later Greek term applied to the five books of Moses, which in their ancient scroll form were kept in sheaths or cases for protection. The Greek term first appears in the second century a.d. and was later employed by Origen (J. E. Steinmueller, Companion to Scripture Studies [1942], 2:7).

The Pentateuch is composed of five books: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. In the Book of Genesis we see the nation of Israel is born. In the Book of Exodus Israel is chosen by God. In the Book of Numbers the nation is proven. In the Book of Leviticus it is brought into the presence of God by blood sacrifice. In Deuteronomy the nation of Israel is instructed. Moses is the traditional author of these five books.

In the Old Testament the Pentateuch is variously designated by names descriptive of its contents. It is called the “law” or “Torah” (Joshua 1:7), more fully “the book of the law of Moses” (Joshua 8:31); “the book of the law” (Joshua 8:34); “the book of the law of God” (Joshua 24:26); “the law of Moses” (1 Kings 2:3); and “the book of the law of the Lord” (2 Chronicles 17:9). The NT calls it “the book of the law” (Galatians 3:10); “the law of Moses” (Luke 2:22); “the Law of the Lord” (Luke 2:23); or simply “the Law” (Matthew 5:17; Luke 10:26).

The books included in the Pentateuch were written about 1445-1405 B.C. and cover the period of time from creation to the exodus of the nation of Israel from slavery in Egypt about 1405 B.C.

(Information Source: The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary)

Notes and Audio Lessons

Click on the links below to access notes and audio lessons about the Pentateuch – the first 5 books of the Bible.

Books of the Pentateuch

Click on the links below to access further information, notes and audio lessons on the books of the Pentateuch.

NEXT CLICK HERE for lessons on Old Testament Book of Genesis.